Nāgārjuna (c. 150250), called the "second Buddha", was an Indian Buddhist priest and thinker. He systematized Mahayana Buddhist philosophy around the central concept of the emptiness (shunyata) of all existents (dharmas).


  • No suffering is self-caused.
    Nothing causes itself.
    If another is not self-made,
    How could suffering be caused by another?

    If suffering were caused by each,
    Suffering could be caused by both.
    Not caused by self or by other,
    How could suffering be uncaused?

  • The science, which teaches arts and handicrafts
    Is merely science for the gaining of a living;
    But the science which teaches deliverance from worldly existence,
    Is not that the true science?"
    • Prajñadanda (The Staff of Wisdom) attributed to Nagarjuna

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Last modified on 27 March 2008, at 13:59