List of first-letter mnemonics

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First-letter mnemonics are a type of mnemonic consisting of an easily remembered word, phrase, or rhyme whose first letters are associated with the list items.

Science and technology

Biology, medicine, and anatomy

Medical mnemonics are quite common, see [1]. Some of them are less politically correct than others, and some are profane (presumably because their shock value makes them easier to remember). The list below doesn't censor, but in some cases does provide "clean" alternatives.


Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration

Atrial Fibrillation

Differential Diagnoses of Atrial Fibrillation:
Pulmonary disease
Rheumatic heart disease
Ethanol, and

Biological groupings in taxonomy
(The letters stand for Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.)
  • "Kings Play Cards On Fat Green Stools"[1]
  • "Kings Play Chess On Fine Glass Stools" (or fine grained sand)
  • "Kings Play Chess On Fridays, Generally Speaking"
  • "Kings Play Chess On Funny Green Squares"

  • "King Philip Classed Ordinary Families as Generous and Special" (or generally specious)
  • "King Philip Crossed Over From Germany to Spain"
  • "King Philip Came Over From Germany Seeking Valor" (v standing for variety)
  • "King Philip Came Over From Great Spain"
  • "King Philip, Come Out, For Goodness Sake!"
  • "King Philip Cried Out, 'For Goodness Sake!'"
  • "King Philip Cuts Open Five Green Snakes"
  • "King Philip Came Over For Green Spaghetti" (or crossed over, or for ginger snaps, or green stamps)
  • "King Philip Could Only Find Green Socks"
  • "King Philip Can Only Farm Green Spinach"
  • "Kids Playing Catch On Freeway Get Smashed"
  • "Kangaroos Play Cards On Fridays (Go See!)"
  • "Kinky People Care Only For Good Sex"
  • "King Philip Comes Over For Good Sex"
  • "Kiwis Play Cricket On Flat Green Surfaces"
  • "Kittins Prefer Cream Or Fish Generally Speaking"
Cell division

The phases of cell divisions:

    • I Plowed More Acres Today.
      • Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telaphase
Cranial bones

Skull bones: Old People From Texas Eat Spiders (Occipital, parietal, frontal, temporal, ethmoid and sphenoid)

Cranial nerves

Even Less Politically correct, but which may stick in the minds of the overstressed young males (and some females?0 in Med School is:

Oh, Oh, Oh, To Touch And Feel A Good Virgin's Accessible Hymen.

=Oh [Olfactory nerve], Oh[Optic nerve], Oh[Occulomotor], To [Trochlear] Touch [Trigeminal] And [Abducens] Feel [Facial] A [Auditory] Good [Glossopharyngeal nerve] Virgin's [Vagus]Accessible [Accessory nerve] Hymen [Hypoglossal nerve].

  • OLd OPie OCCasionally TRies TRIgonometry And Feels VEry GLoomy, VAGUe, Acutely HYPOactive
  • OLd OPTICians OCCasionally Too TRy And Feel AUDrey GLOSSOp's VAGina AcH!

(Many variants exist. Mnemonics for the cranial nerves vary, because the auditory nerve is also known as the Vestibulocochlear nerve and the accessory nerve is also known as the Spinal accessory nerve.)

    • Oh oh oh to touch a fresh virgin girl's vagina and hymen
    • Oh oh oh to touch and feel very green vegetables and herbs

(Most others are equally vulgar.)

Cranial nerves I-XII - Functions
  • Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Bad Business Marry Money

S = Sensory Nerves
M = Motor Nerves
B = Both functions of nerves

  • Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Brains (or Boobs) Matter More
  1. S = Sensory Nerve
  2. M = Motor Nerve
  3. B = Both functions of nerve
Carpal bones

For the American names of the carpal bones: "never lower Tillie's pants. Mother may come home" Navicular/scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, multangular (greater)/trapezium, multangular (lesser)/trapezoid, capitate, hamate.×

Others include:
Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle or

She Likes To Play Try To Catch Her

Cell death

An example of simple yet effective medical mnemonic, often employed to assist first-year medical students of UNSW (Australia) is "CHINPIG". This outlines the 7 empirical causes of cell death, which are "Chemical, Hypoxia, Infection, Nutritional, Physical, Immunologic, Genetic".

Cultural Awareness

The mnemonic ASKED (awareness, skill, knowledge, encounters, desire) provides a framework for building cultural awareness in clinical practice.[3] [4]:

  • Awareness: Am I aware of my personal biases and prejudices toward cultural groups that are different from mine?
  • Skill: Do I have the skill to conduct a cultural assessment and perform a culturally based physical assessment in a sensitive manner?
  • Knowledge: Do I have knowledge of the patient's world view and the field of biocultural ecology?
  • Encounters: How many face-to-face encounters have I had with patients from diverse cultural backgrounds?
  • Desire: What is my genuine desire to "want to be" culturally competent?

Microcytic Anemias-TICS
(Refers to reTICulocyte count [new, immature red blood cells]: Is the patient's marrow TICking? [making reticulocytes])

  • Thalassemia Syndromes: β-thalassemia major, β-thalassemia minor, α-thalassemia.
  • Iron deficiancy anemia
  • Anemia of Chronic inflammation
  • Sideroblastic anemias

Macrocytic Anemias-BIG FAT RED CELLS

  • B¹² (cobalamin) defiency
  • Inherited disorders: orotic aciduria, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, DiGuglielmo's syndrome, etc.
  • Gastrointestinal disease or surgery
  • Folic acid deficiency
  • Alcoholism, chronic
  • Thiamine responsive anemia
  • Reticulocytosis (reticulocytes in large numbers may inflate the RBC, because they are larger)
  • Endocrine disturbances: i.e., hypothyroidism.
  • Dietary defiencies
  • Chemotherapeutic drugs
  • Erythroleukemias
  • Liver disease
  • Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
  • Splenectomy

Normocytic Anemias-NORMAL SIZE

  • Normal pregnancy
  • Overhydration and expanded plasma volume
  • Renal disease, chronic
  • Myelophthisic anemia
  • Acute blood loss
  • Leukemia and Liver disease
  • Systemic Inflammation
  • Zero production
  • Endocrine disorders: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, adrenal insuffieciency, hypogonadism, etc.

Hemolytic Anemias-HEMATOLOGIST

  • Hemoglobinopathies-Sickle cell, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, etc.
  • Enzyme deficiencies
  • Medications-sulfa, penicillin, quinine, quinidine, and chlorpromazine.
  • Antibodies
  • Trauma to the RBCs (abnormal endothelium)
  • Ovalocytosis
  • Liver disease
  • Osmotic fragility-hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptoytosis.
  • G-6-PD deficiency
  • Infection-malaria and babesiosis.
  • Splenic destruction-splenomegaly, portal hypertension, infiltration (leukemia or lymphoma), and collagen vascular diseases.
  • Transfusion-especially delayed reactions.

Immunoglobulin isotypes
There are five types of antibody:



Infectious Disease

The FACTS tell you when it's flu (influenza) and not just a cold:
Fever spike
Sudden symptoms

Life processes

The contrived name Mrs Gren gives the life processes Movement, Respiration, Sensitivity, Growth, Reproduction, Excretion, Nutrition.


Two mnemonics to help in the screening process for Generalized Anxiety Disorder:

Mnemonic for GAD Symptoms:
Does MR FISC ever worry about minor matters?
M-Motor tension
S-Sleep disturbances
C-Concentration difficulties

The BATHE technique:
Background: "What is going on in your life?"
Affect: "How do you feel about that?"
Trouble: "What is it that troubles you (most)?"
Handling: "How are you handling that?"
Empathy: "That must be very hard for you."

Retroperitoneal Viscera

Aorta and Inferior vena cava
Colon (ascending and descending)

Vertebrae (superior to inferior):

Charlie Tuna Loves Small Cans,
Canned Tuna Looks So Cramped,
Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacrum Coccyx


The DIAPPERS mnemonic is a reminder of some potential transient causes of [urinary] incontinence[6]:
Dietary factors (caffeine and Alcohol)
Infection (urinary tract infection)
Atrophic vaginitis
Psychological (depression)
Excessive urination (congestive heart failure, diabetes)
Retention (of urine)
Stool impaction or constipation



The major planets of our solar system: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.

    • Max Viewed Eight Martians Jousting Six Ugly Ninjas
    • Matilda Visits Every Monday, Just Stays Until Noon
    • My Very Energetic Mother Just Screamed Utter Nonsense
    • My Very Efficient Monkey Just Sorted Unused Napkins
    • My Volkswagen Emits Mick Jagger Songs Until Noon
    • Most Vegetarians Eat Meaty Jack-o-lanterns Seasoned Uniquely with Nutmeg
    • Major Volcanoes Erupt Massively Just Surrounding Underground Nations
    • Mormons Vehemently Endorse Making Justice Somewhere Underneath Nepal
    • My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nothing
    • My Very Exotic Mistress Just Showed Up Naked
    • My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nachos
    • My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Noodles
    • My Very Evil Mother Just Served Us Nothing
    • My Vicious EX-con Mailman Just Sold Us Narcotics

There have also been many variations of this mnemonic including Pluto when it was considered a planet, including the ever-popular:

    • My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas
    • My Very Earnest Mother Just Sat Upon North Pole
    • My Very Educated Mother Just Showed Us Nine Planets
    • Matilda Visits Every Monday, Just Stays Until Noon, Period [7]
    • My Very Easy Mnemonic Just Summed Up Nine Planets
    • My Very Easy Method Just Sums Up Nine Planets
    • My Very Easy Method Just Speeds Up Naming Planets
    • Marks Very Excitable Melanie Just Sits Unmoved Never Playing
    • My Very Energetic Mother Just Saw Uncle Ned Pass
    • My Very Efficient Memory Just Stores Up Nine Planets
    • Men Very Early Made Jars Stand Upright Not Prone
    • My Very Existence May Just Screw Up Normal People
    • My Vocational Earnings May Just Suffice Unless NASDAQ Plummets
    • My Vicar Eats Mouldy Jam Sandwiches Until Nearly Puking
    • Men Very Easily Make Jam Sandwiches Under No Pressure
    • My Very Excellent Memory Just Served Up Nine Planets
    • Many Venusians Eat Much Jam, Some Use No Prunes

Between February 7, 1979 and February 11, 1999, when Pluto was inside Neptune's orbit, some people used:

    • My Very Energetic Mother Just Served Us Pistachio Nuts
    • My Very Energetic Mother Just Served Us Plenty Noodles (suggested in the letter column of Odyssey magazine)

This one was featured on an episode of the Colbert Report (a response to the people saying that Pluto is not a planet)

My Very Educated Mother Just Said Uh-oh No Pluto

This was featured on CNN on August 16, 2006, about the redefinition of the word planet.

My Very Educated Mother Can't Just Serve Us Pizzas with Chovies X-cluded

  • Featured on the website of The Times on August 17, 2006, after seeking readers' help in devising a new mnemonic to handle the inclusion of Eris (then nicknamed "Xena"):

Most Video Evidence Must Convict Jewellery Smugglers Unless Near Penetratively Corrosive X-rays

Since the demotion of Pluto from its status of planet, a possible mnemonic for the remaining eight planets might be:

My Very Easy Method Just Speeds Up Nomenclature

My Very Easy Method Just Stop Using Nine!

My Very Eager Mother Just Served Us Noodles!

My Very Evil Mother Just Served Us Nothing

My Very Exotic Mistress Just Showed Up Nude

My Very Excellent Mother Just Served Us Nachos!

My Very Efficient Monkey Just Sorted Unused Napkins

Many Very Easy Mnemonics Just Seem Unnecessarily Nonsensical

Many Very Eager Mommies Just Stole Us Ninjas

Most Vunerable Eelephants Make Jelly Sandwhichs Under Nelly

Marsupials' Very Elegant Monkeys Jump Skyhigh Using Nikes

My Very Electrifying Mustang Just Sped Under Nine

My Vicious Elephant Must Jump Sideways Under Nancy

Male Vixens Eat Mashed Jalapenos Smothered Under Nectarines

My Vocal Energetic Monkey Just Screamed Unique Notes

My Very Earthly Mother Just Served Us Nothing

Some people who count Ceres, Pluto, and Eris (the Dwarf Planets) as planets in our Solar System have created these:

My Very Educated Mother Can't Just Stop Using Nice Pure Eggwhites.

My Very Educated Mother Can't Just Stop Using Nasty Putrid Eggwhites.

My Very Exciting Magic Carpet Just Sailed Under Nine Palace Elephants.[2]

  • Planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) (Pluto, Sedna)
    • My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pickles (Smartly)
    • My Very Easy Memory Jingle Seems Useful Naming Planets (Simply)
    • My Very Excellent Memory Just Stores Up Nine Planets (Swiftly)
    • Mary's Violet Eyes Make [Poor (planetoids/asteroid belt)] John Stay Up Nights, Period.
    • Mother Very Thoughtfully Made A Jelly Sandwich Under No Protest
Stellar classification

Stellar spectral classifications (O, B, A, F, G, K, M): the various types of stars follow the mnemonic:

    • Oh Be A Fine Girl, Kiss Me!
    • Only Boys Accepting Feminism Get Kissed Meaningfully!
    • Wow Oh Be A Fine Girl, Kiss Me Right Now Sweetheart! (for a more complete list of star classes)


Some of the physics mnemonics, such as those applying to atomic theory, could also be considered chemistry mnemonics.
  • Chemistry students use the phrase "LEO says GER" and "LEO the lion goes GER" to keep the two halves of a redox process straight, since the Loss of Electrons is Oxidation while the Gain of Electrons is Reduction.[8]
  • The diatomic elements in the periodic table can be recalled using the word BrINClHOF (pronounced brinklehoff) or HONFBrICl (pronounced honfbricle). They are: Bromine, Iodine, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine.
    • Alternatively, one may use the mnemonic "Have No Fear Of Ice Cold Beer".
    • Another option is "I Have No Bright Or Clever Friends".
    • Also, Fonclbrishp is used in situations involving the diatomic molecular form of Phosphorus.
  • The alkali metal group can be recalled using Little Nancy Kept Rubies in Caesar's Front-pocket, the elements being Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Caesium (Cs), Francium (Fr).
  • The Group XVIII inert gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon) may be recalled by the sentence "Heaven Never Arsked Kriegspiel's eXtra Rent"
  • The most electronegative elements, starting with the most electronegative Fluorine (F) and subsequently Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N) and Chlorine (Cl) can be remembered as FON Cl (phone call).
  • The first 20 elements in periodic table form a "word" that is easily remembered: "HHeLiBeBCNOFNeNaMgAlSiPSClArKCa"
    pronounced H HeLiBeB CNOF NeNa MgAl SiPS ClArKCa

For first ten elements: Hello HEllo LIsten B BE C News O F Newyork.The capitals indicate name of the elements.

From Australia- Happy Hermin Lives Behind Barbara CNOFNe. NaMgAl SiPS ClArK Calciun. Also H-He Likes Beer By Cupfuls, Not Overflowing, Neatly.

  • Huge Heavy Lice Beautifully Boast Never O F fering Needless Na M g (names, gee) Al Si (sees) Petty Sadistic Clever Arson Killing Cats

Mnemonic for first 20 elements: Here Here Little Beggar Boys Catch Newts On Fridays, New National Magazines Always Simplify Politicians' Stupid Clauses, Are Kings Careful?

Another Mnemonic for the first 20 elements: Hi, Hello. Little Betsy Blue Could Not Offer Friends Any Nasty Milligrams of Alcohol Since Police Stay Close Around Kids in Canada.

Or: Harry, He Likes Beer By Cupfuls, Not Over Flowing. Nelly, Naturally Megaphonic, Always Sings Part Songs Clearly. Arthur Kisses Cathy.

  • The first row of the Transition metals, left to right: Scabby Tim Violates Crummy, Mangy Ferrets, Cows and Nice Cute Zebras. (Some liberty taken for Zn.)
  • The most electronegative elements, starting with the most electronegative Fluorine (F) and subsequently Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N) and Chlorine (Cl) can be remembered as FON Cl (phone call).
  • The common magnetic materials
    • Nickel Iron Copper Steel
      • This is commonly used in primary schools. For a more complete list, see the Ferromagnetism article

How to memorise first 20 elements in Periodic Table?

Henry he likes betty but can not offer flower, next, nancy magrette always sing pop song called Aaron Kwok Carols

How to memorise the elements in electrochemical series?

Potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, iron, tin, lead, hydrogen, copper, mercury, silver, gold

Malay version: Kalau nak cari makanan ada zat besi, susah pun harus cuba. MSG

English version: Pop star can make all zebras in town like his car, MSG


The electronic color code is used to indicate numerical values or ratings of electronic components, with bands or spots of Black, Brown, Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Violet, Grey, and White corresponding to the digits 0-9, then silver (10%) and gold (5%) tolerance bands. To help remember the sequence of first letters, several mnemonics have been taught to generations of students and apprentices:

  • Black Beetles Running On Your Grass Bring Very Good Weather[10]
  • B. B. ROY of Great Britain had a Very Good Wife[10]
  • Big Ben Rings Out: "Young Girls Buy Volkswagens, George Washington"
Billy brown revives on your gin but values good whisky
  • Bad Beer Rots Our Young Guts But Vodka Goes Well[10]

The last one is intriguing for its similarity to a mnemonic from less politically correct times, "Black Bastards Rape Our Young Girls But Virgins Go Without", although this appears to have fallen into disuse. Another common version of this older mnemonic is "Bad Boys Rape Our Young Girls But Violet Gives Willingly."

Bad Boys Ravish Our Young Girls But Violet Gives Willingly for Silver and Gold
  • Television colour bars in order of brightness (White, Yellow, Cyan, Green, Magenta, Red, Blue, Black)
'When You Catch German Measles Remain Between Blankets


  • A mnemonic to remember which way to turn common (right handed) screws and nuts, including light bulbs, is to remember that cLockwise has an L (for loosen), while counTer-clockwise (and anTi-clockwise in Britain) has a "T" (for tighten); this mnemonic must therefore be reversed to produce the proper direction.
  • For taps and valves you can also use "clockwise is closing" meaning you must turn the tap clockwise to close it.
  • Another for common screws and nuts: "Righty tighty, lefty loosey"


  • Two common mnemonics to remember the 7 layers of the OSI Model (Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link, Physical) is All People Seem To Need Data Processing, and the slightly more adult version A Pussy So Tight No Dick Penetrates. Those who start from the bottom up may prefer Poor Dear Nellie Tucker, She's Pissed Again, or Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away.
  • When designing a page using CSS, the order used to design links is:
(link, visited, hover, active)
  • Also in CSS, when declaring margins, padding or borders in one statement (such as margin: 10px 5px 10px 5px) the order is:
(top, right, bottom, left)



Roman Numerals

From I V X L C D M

  • I Vacuum Xtremely Little Carpet Dust Mites
Order of operations
  • Many people remember the order of operations in arithmetic with the word Brackets [Powers] Of (fractions: ½ of 2) Division Multiplication Addition Subtraction (BODMAS or BOMDAS). Alternatively, BIDMAS is used, with the "I" standing for Indices. In the United States, students often use the sentence Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally, (PEMDAS) where the E signifies exponentiation and the P signifies parentheses. Occasionally the phrase is modified to My Dear Mother's Aunt Sally, with the second M standing for modulo; this is more often seen in the context of programming languages, where the modulo operation is more common. An alternative way to remember the order of operations is "Patrick Ewing Makes Dunks And Slams"
  • Operation precedences (brackets, parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, subtraction)
    • But prison's even more dumb and stupid

Many secondary school students remember the basic trigonometric functions with the phrase SOH-CAH-TOA (pronounced "soak a toe-uh", IPA /soʊ.kə.toʊ.ə/).

SOH ... Sine = Opposite leg divided by the Hypotenuse
CAH ... Cosine = Adjacent leg divided by the Hypotenuse
TOA ... Tangent = Opposite leg divided by the Adjacent leg
Mnemonics for remembering SOH-CAH-TOA include:
  • One Hopes, And Hopes, On America
This was widely taught to British schoolchildren during World War II (the sine-cosine-tangent order was presumed)
  • Slabs Of Ham, Carrots And Horseradish, Tons Of Asparagus
  • Some Officers Have Coaches And Horses To Order Around
  • Oscar Had A Heap Of Apples (the sine-cosine-tangent order was presumed)
  • Oscar Had A Hold On Arthur
  • Smiles Of Happiness Come After Having Tankards Of Ale
  • Some Old Hag Caught A Hippie Tripping On Acid
  • Some Old Horse Caught Another Horse, Taking Oats Away
  • Some Old Horses Can Always Hear Their Owner Approach
  • Some Old Hippie Catching A High Trippin' On Acid
  • See Old Harry Catch A Herring Trawling Off America
  • Oh Heck Another Hour Of Algebra (in order of sine-cosine-tangent)
  • Some Mnemonics use a different order for the functions, such as
The Old Arab Sat On His Camel And Humped
  • On a lighter note if one can remember that Santa Claus says "Ho Ho" and then place the three (Sine Cosine and Tangent) in alphabetical order C S T with A at beginning and A at end we have "A HO HO A and C S T". Now simply read these in order to give the formulae.

In the Cartesian coordinate system, all trigonometric functions are positive in quadrant I, sine and its inverse are positive in quadrant II, tangent and its inverse are positive in quadrant III, and cosine and its inverse are positive in quadrant IV. This can be remembered using the phrase All Students Take Calculus, in the order of the quadrants with "All" signifying all of the trig functions, and S, T and C representing sine, tangent, and cosine respectively.

  • One alternative is the word CAST starting from the fourth quadrant and working counter-clockwise.
  • Other alternatives include All Sing The Chorus (1, 2, 3, 4) , ACTS (1, 4, 3, 2) and Sex And The City (2, 1, 3, 4).
    • All state teachers college
    • All students talk and cheat
    • All schools teach calculus (or chemistry, creativity, or children)
    • All silly tom cats
    • All silver teacups
Analytic geometry

To remember the elements of the matrix<math>

   a & h & g\\
   h & b & f\\
   g & f & c

</math> the determinant of which is used in the Conic Sections part of Analytic Geometry, one mnemonic used is "All Hostel Girls Having Boy Friends Go For Cinema". Another is "All Hairy Gorillas Have Big Feet Good For Climbing".


Some of the chemistry mnemonics, such as those applying to the periodic table, could also be considered physics mnemonics.
  • The colors in the spectrum, Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet, can be recalled via:
    • the name Roy G. Biv. A book review mentions this venerable mnemonic as occurring in a 1978 book of poetry by John Hollander, entitled Spectral Emanations. The verse features "a charmingly disreputable character, Roy G. Biv, an acronym[sic] of the seven colors—red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet—whose surname means 'sewer pipe' in Hebrew."[13]
    • from England, the phrase "Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain" is popular.[14]
    • the phrase "Run Off Young Girls, Boys In View."
  • A mnemonic used to remember the Maxwell relations in thermodynamics is "Good Physicists Have Studied Under Very Fine Teachers", which helps them remember the order of the variables in the square, in clockwise direction. Another mnemonic used here is "Valid Facts and Theoretical Understanding Generate Solutions to Hard Problems", which gives the letter in the normal left to right writing direction.
  • For remembering the letter names of the atomic orbitals: "Sober Physicists Don't Find Giraffes Hiding In Kitchens".

Politics and Government

  • The forms of government: Communism, Democracy, Republic, Oligarchy, Monarchy. Same as acronym Compact Disc Read Only Memory (CD-ROM).

General knowledge


  • "Katie Had a Dime Until Dad Called Mom", "King Henry Doesn't March Down Chocolate Mountains", and"Kids Have Dropped Over Dead Converting Metrics" are effective mnemonics for helping remember the basic Metric system/SI prefixes of "Kilo Hecto Deca O(base unit) deci centi milli". Another one is King Henry Died But Didn't Call Mom" using But for the the Base Unit.

For a more extended set of prefixes (including Exa, Peta, Tera, Giga, Mega and micro, nano, pico, femto, atto) there is: "Every Person That Gave Me Kisses Has Diarrhea" for prefixes greater than one, and "Dairy Cows Make Milk, Not Pink Fruit, Arnold" for prefixes less than one.


  • "Red, right, return" used to remember which sea mark denotes which side of a sailing channel.
  • "There's no more red port wine left" used to remember which side of the ship is port, and which side the red running light is on


  • Order of the suits in bridge from highest to lowest (spades, hearts, diamonds, clubs)
    • Sally has dirty children


Compass points
  • Many young Australian, Kiwi, Canadian and British children remember the compass points in order in clockwise with the phrase Never Eat Soggy Weet-bix, or Never Eat Shredded Wheat (North, East, South, West). Weet-bix (Weet-A-Bix in Canada and Britain) and Shredded Wheat are popular breakfast cereals in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Britain. Another variation is Never Ever Smoke Weed. In the United States, school children are often taught with the phrase Never Eat Soggy Waffles , Never Eat Sour Worms (though the above mentioned Shredded Wheat version is also used),or Never Enter Santa's Workshop, whereas a Canadian rendition is Never Eat Soggy Wieners. Another mnemonic, Naughty Elephants Squirt Water, is also used. In parts of the English Midlands, Never Ever Support Wolves, after the football team, is popular.
  • Countless other humorous variations can be created including:
    Naughty Elephants Suck Willies, Never Eat Salty Weasles, or anything else you care to come up with.
    • Never eat soggy waffles
    • Never eat shredded wheat
    • Never eat shredded wieners
    • Never eat sliced watermellons
    • Never eat sea weed
    • Never eat slimy worms
    • Naughty elephants squirt water
  • In Estonian schools studying of intermediate directions is often made easier by a mnemonic, which is formed by each direction's first letter. (In Estonia intermediate directions have separate names, instead of forming from cardinal directions (North+East=Northeast). So Northeast corresponds to Kirre, while Southeast, Southwest and Northwest are Edel, Loe and Kagu, respectively. Counting from Kirre towards Kagu the first letters combine word "kelk", which is Estonian for "sled".
Great Lakes
  • The Great Lakes (from east to west, Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, Superior):
    • Old elephants have much skin
    • Alternatively, simply remember the word HOMES. However, this acronym doesn't account for the lakes in any particular geographical order.
  • SMHEO or SuM HErO is also useful to remember the lakes' positions from North to South, "She Made Him Eat Olives" to remember their positions from West to East, and if you like, "Sam's Horse Must Eat Oats" helps one to remember their ordering by size from largest to smallest. The Canadian lakes can be noted as SHOE.
Nations and islands
  • Many cities have mnemonics that locals use to remember the order of important streets, for example Seattle's "Jesus Christ Made Seattle Under Protest" or "John Coltrane Made Saxophone Universally Prominent." (pairs of downtown streets from south to north, i.e. Jefferson, James, etc.)
  • Melbourne, Australia, has King, William, Queen, Elizabeth streets in that order (King William, Queen Elizabeth - English monarchs).
  • To help remember whether you lose time or gain it when traveling: EWG and WEL. East to West Gains and West to East Loses
  • SUNWAC (rivers)



  • A mnemonic to remember different ranks of generals in the U.S. Military is "Be My Little General" for Brigadier General (one star), Major General (two stars), Lieutenant General (three stars), and General (four stars).
  • For the company and field grade ranks (without the lieutenant and colonel gradations), soldiers sometimes use Let's Catch Military Charm, to recall Lieutenant, Captain, Major, and Colonel; likewise, Loose Change Makes Cash has been used.


The mnemonic "Every Good Boy Does Fine", for the names of the notes on the lines of the treble clef, is taught to music students and is a commonly cited example of a mnemonic. It has a long history. A novel by Joseph Machlis set in the early 1900s tells how "Miss Gerwitz, a thin little woman with a birdlike face... arrived for the lesson with Bayer's Piano Method under her arm and proceeded to initiate David into the mysteries of the staff. The lines were 'Every Good Boy Does Fine,' the spaces 'F-A-C-E.'"[15] In 1947, a professor at Teachers College complained that this mnemonic interferes with proper learning, referring to "old teaching 'vices,' such as having children memorize the spaces and lines on the staff by remembering the word 'face' and the phrase 'Every good boy does fine.'"[16]. Also along these lines is the more peculiarly British version, Every Good Boy Deserves Favour, of which see also The Moody Blues' album of the same title. Similarly, the band Mudhoney has an album titled Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge. Other variations are 'Every Good Boy Deserves Football' , 'Every Good Boy Deserves Fruit', 'Every Good Boy Deserves Fireworks', 'Every Good Boy Does Females' (which usually causes snickering and giggling among 7th and 8th graders) and 'Even George Bush Drives Fast' (a reference to the current President of the United States).

  • Notes on treble clef lines (E, G, B, D, F)
    • Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge (also Deserves Favour or Deserves Football or Deserves Fruit)
    • Every Good Boy Does Fine
    • Every Good Bird Does Fly
    • Every Glasgow Bus Drives Fast (as you would guess, used in Glasgow schools)
    • Even George Bush Drives Fast
    • Elephant Goes Boating Drowns Fast
    • Empty the Garbage Before Dad Flips
  • Notes on treble clef spaces (F, A, C, E)
    • Spell out the word face

There are various mnemonics for the bass clef as well, the space notes ACEG can be remembered as All Cows Eat Grass, while the lines can be remembered as Good Boys Deserve Football (or Favour, or Fudge) Always or Good Boys Do Fine Always.

  • Notes on bass clef lines (G, B, D, F, A)
    • Good Boys Do Fine Always (or Fine Art)
    • Good Boys Deserve Fudge Always (or Fruit)
    • Good Boys Don't Fool Around
    • Great Big Dogs Fight A lot
    • Girls Blow D icks For Action
    • Great Big Dogs Fight Aardvarks
    • Good Bikes Don't Fall Apart
  • Notes on bass clef spaces (A, C, E, G)
    • All Cows Eat Grass
    • All Cars Eat Gas

One method for remembering the 6 main concepts of music that is particularly odd, but memorable is: Deranged Possums That Do Stupid Things. Standing for Duration, Pitch, Texture, Dynamics and Expressive Techniques, Structure and Tone Colour (or Timbre)

Another common mnemonic is Fat Cats Go Down Alleys Eating Bananas, or Five Composers Got Drunk At Eddie's Bar. This is the order of Sharps in a key signature. For Flats, many use BEAD Greatest Common Factor. Another mnemonic for the order of sharps is, Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battles. The cool thing about this mnemonic is if its said backwards you get the order of flats; Battles End And Down Goes Charles' Father. One used primarily in Britain, but just as easily remembered is Father Christmas Gave Dad An Electric Blanket for sharps, and the continues with; Blanket Explodes And Dad Gets Cold Feet, for remembering flats.

  • Order of sharps/flats in key signatures
    • for sharps: Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battle
    • Father Christmas Gets Drunk And Eats Bananas
    • Fat Cows Go Down An Elevator. Boom!
    • for flats: Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles' Father

A less common mnemonic is I Don't Push Little Men Around Heavy Instruments. This is used for different musical modes (Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aolian, Hypophrygian, and Ionian). Also used is the reference 'I Don't Punch Like Muhammad Ali' (which uses all of the modes without repetition).

A mnemonic used often for the open notes of a standard-tuned 6-string guitar (E-B-G-D-A-E) is "Every boy goes drinking all evening".

The calendar

  • The dominical letters for the years 1630, 1730, 1830, and 1930, taken in that order, spell "FACE". This can be remembered by the mnemonic "dirty face" (for "'30 FACE").


One idle damn Sunday, Dad killed cheating thief and lied to cover it.

One idol names six honored murderers and stealers which covet.

One God, No idols, Don't swear, Keep Sabbath, Honour father, Don't kill, Don't commit adultery, Don't steal, Don't bear false witness, Don't covet...

Retaliating For Long Frustration Moses Badgered Hostile Leader Demanding Freedom

Bloody Frenchmen (alternatively: Real Frenchmen...) Like Flies, Most Britons Hate Locusts Done Fried

River to blood, frogs, lice, flies, murrain, boils, hail, locusts, darkness and first-born.

Bartholomew, Andrew, John, Phillip, Thomas, Matthew, James, James, Simon, Simon Peter, Judas and Judas Iscariot.

Bart and John fill Tom's mat (with) 2 Jamess, 2 Simons, and 2 Judass.

Bart (Bartholomew) and (Andrew) John fill (Phillip) Tom's mat (Matthew) (with) 2 James's, 2 Simons, and 2 Judas's.

Quasimodogeniti, Misericordias Domini, Jubilate, Cantate, Rogate, Ascension, Exaudi

Quiet Mister Dick Jones Could't Read Any English
Quick Miss Diane Jones Can't Rope Any Exes

PEWS 'ave GLu

Pride Envy Wrath Sloth Avarice Gluttony Lust

(Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea)
Every smart person thinks, "Start ... finish later."


Seven Hills of Rome:

The Ruling Houses of England:

  • No Point Letting Your Trousers Slip Half-Way
(Norman, Plantagenet, Lancaster, York, Tudor, Stuart, Hanover, Windsor)

The wives of Henry VIII can be remembered by the mnemonic All boys should come home please. (Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleeves, Catherine Howard and Catherine Parr.)

To remember the last names of the first seven Presidents of the United States, (Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Adams, and Jackson) use this mnemonic:

Washington And Jefferson Made Many A Joke

The chronological order of the three prominent Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle:

smart people of Athens


  • How to construct arguments for debating:
SEXI arguments
State, EXplain, Illustrate


Child Psychologist Bronfrenner's Ecological Sysytems Theory which defines the contexts of development as Microsysytems (1st level), Mesosystems (2nd layer) Exosytems (3rd layer) Macrosystems (4th layer) and Chronosystem (Across all layers) MICe and MEn Eat MACaroni and Cheese

Law and legal studies

  • Terms that should be stated in a Contract
"Ducks say quack quack when people pass"
  • Requirements for a contract:
  • List of contractual items that must be in writing to satisfy the Statute Of Frauds.
SECURITES, PERSONAL property over $5K except goods, ANSWER for the debt of another, MARRIAGE contracts in consideration of, LAND, OVER 1 year to complete, GOODS over $500


(ūllus, nūllus, ūnus, sōlus, neuter, alter, uter, tōtus, alius)
(any, none, one, only, neither, the other [one] of two, which [one] of two, entire, another):
"ūnus nauta" (one sailor)
  • English short vowel sounds:
Ann's egg is on us (AEIOU)
  • Gojuuon order for Japanese syllables:
A Kitten Sees The Nearby House; Mice Yell "Run, Walk Not," (order of consonants) And I Understand Every One. (order of vowels in most cases)
  • In essay writing:
PEE (Point, Example, Explain)


  1. Choron, Sandra; Harry Choron. College in a Can. p. 155
  2. Swansburg, Russell C (1995). Nursing Staff Development, Jones and Bartlett Publishers. ISBN 0-86720-658-6., p. 88: "An example of this is the mnemonic used by most nursing students to remember the cranial nerves: On Old Olympus' Towering Top a Finn and German Viewed Some Hops."
  3. Bescenti J, Wick, KH, Tradition and Treatment: The impact of cultural beliefs on medical decision making. JAAPA. 2006;12:16-18
  4. Campinha-Bacote J, Many Faces:addressing diversity in health care. Online J Issues Nursing [serial online]. 2003;8(1):[manuscript 2]. Available at accessed November 27, 2006.
  5. Platt A, Eckman JR, Clinician Reviews,2006;12:44-9
  6. Resnick NM, Geriatric incontinence. Urol Clin North Am. 1996;23:55-74.
  7. Kenneth Weaver, "Voyage to the Planets," p. 165, National Geographic, August 1970
  8. Buell, Phyllis; James Gerard (2002). Chemistry Fundamentals: An Environmental Perspective, Jones and Bartlett. ISBN 0-7637-1074-1. p. 208: "When a substance loses an electron, it is oxidized; when it gains an electron, it is reduced (LEO says GER)"
  9. Bland, Will J.; David Rolls (1998). Weathering: An Introduction to the Scientific Principles, Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-340-67744-9. p. 75: "It is helpful to remember 'OIL RIG:' Oxidation i loss of electrons ('OIL'), Reduction is gain of electrons ('RIG')."
  10. a b c Hrynkiw, David; Mark Tilden (2002). JunkBots, Bugbots, and Bots on Wheels: Building Simple Robots With BEAM Technology, McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-222601-3., p. 33.
  11. Rozakis, Laurie (2002). Test Taking Strategies and Study Skills for the Utterly Confused, McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-139923-2. p. 84
  12. The Geological Society. Mnemomania. Retrieved on 2006-05-05.: "Tall Girls Can Flirt..." and many others
  13. Flint, R. W. (1978): "Luminous Melancholy, Fantastical Wit," The New York Times, May 28, 1978, p. BR2. Review of John, Hollander (1978). Spectral Emanations, New York: Atheneum.
  14. Hayes, Steven C.; Dermot Barnes-Holmes, Bryan Roche (2002). Relational Frame Theory: A Post-Skinnerian Account of Human Language and Cognition, Springer. ISBN 0-306-46600-7., p. 92: "the British children's mnemonic 'Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain'"
  15. Machlis, Joseph (1982). Lisa's Boy, W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-01606-4..
  16. "Ten Children Play the Piano in 40 Minutes; Expert Stresses Imitation as Best Teaching," The New York Times, June 4, 1947, p. 29